The most important political and diplomatic problem in the early postwar period was the Cold War. It grew out of longstanding disagreements between the United States and the Soviet Union over what kind of government and economic system produced the most freedom, equality, and prosperity.
Faced with the prospect of a postwar world engulfed in civil wars and disintegrating empires, the United States hoped to provide the stability necessary for peaceful reconstruction to be possible. She advocated democracy and open trade and committed $ 17 billion, under the “Marshall Plan,” to rebuild Western Europe. The Soviet Union wanted to secure its borders at all costs. She used military force to help elevate communist governments in central and eastern Europe to power.
The United States set out to contain Soviet expansionism. She demanded and obtained the total withdrawal of the USSR from Iran. She supported Turkey against Soviet attempts to control the sea routes. It provided economic and military aid to Greece to fight a powerful communist insurgency. Additionally, he spearheaded efforts to airlift millions of tons of supplies to Berlin when the Soviet Union blockaded that divided city.
When most of the US aid transited the Atlantic, little could be done to prevent Mao’s communist forces from assuming control of China in 1949. The following year, when North Korea – with the support of China and the Soviet Union – invaded South Korea, the United States got UN backing for a military intervention. The North Koreans eventually fell back and a truce was signed, but tensions remained intense and US troops remained there for several decades.
In the mid-1960s, the United States sent troops to defend South Vietnam against an established communist insurgency in North Vietnam. American participation increased enormously, but it was not enough to prevent the South from collapsing in 1975. The war cost hundreds of thousands of lives. It also sparked bitter internal divisions and made Americans suspicious of any future intervention abroad.
Another important event in the 20th century happened on December 11, 1991, when the European Union created, under the Maastricht Agreement, an intergovernmental organization of 12 Western European nations, with the aspiration of building ‘a lasting union between the people of Europe’ It entered into force on November 1, 1993 ”.
Now, returning to the evolution of thought during the 20th century, I will first mention the Phenomenology which has been the characteristic philosophical movement since the 20th century, and which is characterized precisely by its claim of radical fidelity to what is given, to what is really offered. to experience, to describe the essential features, the essences of the different regions of reality that are shown in this attitude.